Anatomy, Biomechanics, Human

Feet the foundation of movement: Part one anatomy and function

Feet are an important part of our lives. They continuously absorb a lot of force to allow us to move and balance in a number of ways. When feet are doing their job life is great but if there is something wrong then daily life can be affected hugely. Do you take care of your feet, understand how they work or want to know more about these incredible structures then continue reading?

Today we are going to discuss the anatomy and function of the foot. Part two will look into problems that may arise with feet and how they can affect the rest of the body. In part three and to conclude the series then ways to keep your feet healthy for pain free movement will be discussed.

Anatomy of the foot

The foot is quite a complex structure compared to the rest of a human body. It is made up of 26 bones, 30 joints and over a 100 muscles, tendons and ligaments all working together to create an apparatus that allows movement, and stability while bearing the weight of the whole body.

The foot is separated into three regions the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot. The hindfoot is made up of the talus and calcanus. The talus articulates with the fibula and tibia to form the ankle joint (talocrural joint) and the calcanous is your heel. The midfoot has five tarsal bones, which are wedge shaped and help form the arch of your foot. The forefoot contains the metatarsals and phalanges which form your toes.

Function of the foot

As noted earlier the foot bears the weight of our bodies. When walking the pressure on the feet increases twofold and then fourfold when running. This is a huge amount of pressure in such a small structure. As a result the foot needs to be able to absorb and distribute weight. It also needs to be able to help with propelling the body forward in our chosen gait. The foot has three arches the medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal and transverse arch. These arches allow weight to be distributed throughout the foot as well as allowing the foot to make adjustments to uneven terrain. The medial longitudinal arch is the primary load bearing and shock absorbing structure of the foot. It forms the instep of the foot.

The plantar fascia makes up the primary passive component (along with the bony structures) of the medial longitudinal arch. It covers the sole and side of the foot. Active toe extension stretches the fascia which adds tension to the medial longitudinal arch. It helps stabilise the foot especially in the push of phase of movement. Other structures such as muscles help stop the arch from lowering to much when weight bearing and likely protects against stress related injuries.

The foots ability to repeatedly transform from a flexible and shock absorbing structure to a rigid lever type structure is really important in our ability to move and weight bear. If there is a problem in the foots structure then our ability to weigh bear and move is compromised and our everyday living is profoundly affected. In the next post injuries that can arise with feet will be discussed.

If you have any queries about injuries to your feet then don’t hesitate to get in touch to discuss your concerns or book an appointment

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